strategic research to fill knowledge gaps and to allow a sounding and safe wide deployment of CCS
advice from our endependent authoritative network to NGOs, regulators, other stakeholders, based on scientific evidences
proactive action to train a new generation of scientists, able to tackle all the aspects of CO2 geological storage
CO2GeoNet was invited to an international CCUS roundtable to share CO2GeoNet experience in knowledge sharing activities.
CO2GeoNet in the organizing group of the International Scientific Diving Summer School, hosted at the ECCSEL NatLab Italy in Panarea (Eolian Islands).
CGS Europe is a project funded within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Community for research, technological development and demonstration activities.
CGS Europe pools together the expertise of the key research institutes in the area of CO2 geological storage in European Member States and Associated Countries. It sets up coordination and integration mechanisms between the CO2GeoNet Association - the European Network of Excellence on the Geological Storage of CO2 - and 23 other participants, thus covering most of Europe with 24 EU Member States and 4 Associated Countries.
CGS Europe provides an independent platform and reference source where national, European and international experts, institutes and regulators are able to access the most up-to-date results of CO2 storage-related studies, share experiences and good practices, discuss the implementation of regulations, identify research needs to face upcoming challenges, and build new projects.
CO2CARE aims to support the large scale demonstration of CCS technology by addressing the research requirements of CO2 storage site abandonment.
It delivers technologies and procedures for abandonment and post-closure safety, satisfying the regulatory requirements for transfer of responsibility.
The project focus on three key areas:
Objectives are achieved via integrated laboratory research, field experiments and state-of-the-art numerical modelling, supported by literature review and data from a rich portfolio of real storage sites, covering a wide range of geological and geographical settings.
CO2CARE aim is to develop plugging techniques to ensure long-term well integrity; study the factors critical to long-term site safety; develop monitoring methods for leakage detection; investigate and develop remediation technologies.
Predictive modelling approaches are assessed for their ability to help define acceptance criteria. Risk management procedures and tools to assess post-closure system performance are developed. Integrating these, the technical criteria necessary to assess whether a site meets the high level requirements for transfer of responsibility defined by the EU Directive is established. The technologies developed are implemented at the Ketzin site and dry-run applications for site abandonment are developed for hypothetical closure scenarios at Sleipner and K12-B.
Participation of partners from the US, Canada, Japan and Australia and data obtained from current and closed sites add to the field monitoring database and place the results of CO2CARE in a world-wide perspective. Research findings are presented as best-practice guidelines. Dissemination strategy consists in delivering results to a wide range of international stakeholders and the general public.
training and capacity building,
information and communication
CO2StoP is the acronym for the “CO2 Storage Potential in Europe.” project. The CO2StoP project, which started in January 2012 and ended in December 2013, was funded by the European Commission (Project N°: ENER/C1/154-2011-SI2.611598). The project covered data from 27 countries1.
The results of the study are provided as a database of CO2 storage locations throughout Europe, a Data Analysis/Interrogation Tool and GIS, and a tool to compute storage capacities and injection rates (StoreFit). The database is now housed by the Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Petten, the Netherlands (http://iet.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ ).
The calculations made in CO2StoP from the current project database of CO2 storage locations throughout Europe paint a broad picture, but also identify the gaps in our knowledge. These gaps must be filled by further data entry, and, potentially, new geological studies, seismic surveys and drilling to make more precise data available.
It is critically important to understand the assumptions that lie at the basis of the storage capacity estimates entered in the database. These are especially relevant for saline formations, the capacities of which were derived without taking into account regulatory or economic limitations.
The CO2StoP methodology has made significant progress towards establishing probabilistic estimates of the CO2 storage resource in Europe in a way that will allow comparisons with other regions of the world to be made, and which will also be useful to policy makers. However, the partial data entry into the project database does make clear that the current project marks the beginning of the process of resource estimation, and certainly not the end.
Sub-seabed CO2 Storage
With this selection of study sites, each at a different operative stage, ECO2 will cover the major geological settings to be used for the storage of CO2 including depleted oil and gas reservoirs (B3 field site, 80 m water depth), saline aquifers located at the continental shelf (Sleipner, 90 m water depth), and the upper continental slope (Snøhvit, 330 m water depth, see section B1.3 for more detailed information on study areas). In response to the call, we have developed five key objectives for ECO2.
The objective of ECO-BASE (sponsored by ACT ERA Net Co-fund) is to develop detailed and integrated roadmaps for CCUS(carbon capture, utilisation and storage) based on EORStore concept, where EOR (enhanced oil recovery) is co-optimised with permanent storage.
The project is focusing around three South-East European countries (Romania, Turkey and Greece) with support from Norway and the Netherlands. The roadmaps will be based on available data on sources and sinks and supported by state of the art optimization engineering and economic/tax modelling. The project will analyse several emitter to end-user value chains and prospective revenue streams in Southern-East Europe by providing roadmaps as preparation for pilot applications, thereby lifting the storage and utilization components of the CCUS value chain in SEE to TRL 4-5.
The resulting roadmaps will include the way forward on technical, legal, economic and public levels for CCUS in general and to EORStore specifically. The cases will also serve as an example for Europe-wide application of CCUS.
The ENOS (ENabling ONshore CO2 storage in Europe) project, coordinated by BRGM (France), was launched at the end of 2016 and will last for four years. It unites 29 organisations across 17 countries, and is financed by the European Union’s H2020 programme with a budget of 12.5 M€ as well as partners’ own funds. It is an initiative of CO2GeoNet, the European Network of Excellence on the geological storage of CO2 (www.co2geonet.com). Eight of its members are involved in this project, namely: BRGM, BGR, CGS, CIUDEN, IRIS, OGS, TNO and UNIROMA La Sapienza.
ENOS strives to enhance the development of CO2 storage onshore, close to CO2 emission points. Several field pilots in various geological settings will be studied in detail and best practices that stakeholders can rely on will be produced. In this way, ENOS will help demonstrate that CO2 storage is safe and environmentally sound and increase the confidence of stakeholders and the public in CCS as a viable mitigation option.
The main objective of GeoCapacity is to Assess the European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide.
The project has included full assessments of a number hitherto not covered countries, and updates of previously covered territory. Also a priority is the further development of innovative methods for capacity assessment, economic modelling and site selection criteria. Finally, an important mission is to initiate scientific collaboration with China and possibly other CSLF members. The GeoCapacity project has comprised all or parts of the sedimentary basins suitable for geological storage of CO2 and located within the EU and the Central and Eastern European new member states and candidate countries. In areas, which were part of the GESTCO project completed in 2003, the work has included only supplementary updates.
The project is co-funded by the EU within FP6 - the 6th Framework Programme of the European Community for Research, Technological Development and demonstration activities, contributing to the creation of the European Research Area and to innovation (2002 to 2006).
RISCS is a European project which aims to improve our understanding of the possible environmental impacts of geological storage of CO2. There are 24 organisations participating in RISCS including research institutions, industry environmental associations and the International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas R & D Programme. The project is designed to study a wide range of potential impacts, thus providing tools for developing appropriate legislation and helping to ensure the safe management of CO2 storage sites.
RISCS is a 4- year, EU and industry sponsored project, with focus on the potential environmental impacts that might be associated with CO2 leakage from a storage site, even if such leakage is very unlikely.
The project provides the essential research, through field work and the development and validation of appropriate models, to underpin frameworks for the safe management of CO2 storage sites. Research within the project is focused on understanding the potential likelihoods and consequences of impacts scenarios on key receptors such as human populations, ecosystems, and groundwater.
A representative set of reference scenarios, encompassing the main types of impacts to living organisms that could be present, are investigated. This covers a range of CO2 storage options , both onshore and offshore, in a variety of geographical settings.
RISCS aim is to communicate the research and the outcomes in an accessible way to stakeholders and the public. A key output of the project (and other related research) is a ‘Guide for Impact Appraisal’, developed in consultation with stakeholders.
The three-year European SiteChar project (FP7), dedicated to set the criteria for characterisation of sites for geological storage of CO2, was launched in January 2011.
SiteChar has examined the whole site characterisation process integrating site characterisation, risk assessment and development of monitoring plans. The workflow has been tested at a range of onshore and offshore, saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs, representative of various geological contexts and located across Europe. Detailed evaluation of site-specific techno-economic factors and injection strategies have been performed. Social site characterisation and public engagement activities have also been conducted. A key innovation is the development of dry-run licence applications.
By advancing a portfolio of sites to a (near-) completed feasibility stage, developing a methodology for the preparation of license applications, incorporating all the technical and economic data, as well as societal aspects, SiteChar has provided a valuable tool for the roll- out of geological storage on an industrial scale in Europe.
Coordinated by IFP Energies nouvelles, SiteChar gathers another sixteen partners from research, industry, and consultancy sector, from ten EU countries: AGH, BGS, ECN, ENEL, GEUS, GFZ, IMPERIAL, OGS, PGNiG, SINTEF-PR, Statoil, TNO, UfU, UniRoma1-CERI, Vattenfall and the Scottish Government. SiteChar is has been also supported by Veolia Environnement.
ULTimateCO2, a four-year collaborative project financed by the 7th Framework Programme and coordinated by BRGM, aims to shed more light on the long-term processes associated with the geological storage of CO2.
ULTimateCO2 unites 12 partners (research institutes, universities, industrialists) and a varied panel of experts (NGOs, national authority representatives, IEAGHG, ….).
Based on a multidisciplinary approach, and bringing together laboratory experiments, numerical modelling and natural analogue field studies, ULTimateCO2 will increase our understanding of the long-term effects of CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) in terms of hydrodynamics, geochemistry, mechanics of the storage formations and their vicinity.
The project considers the three crucial elements of a storage site:
Reservoir: All processes of multiphase flow and associated geochemical reactivity are studied through laboratory experiments and digital modelling in order to assess CO2 trapping mechanisms (structural, dissolution, residual, mineral), based on both hypothetical and real data.
Caprock: A shaly caprock, potentially faulted or fractured, is studied in detail based on i) previous data on gas reservoirs in the North Sea that have shown leakage, ii) laboratory tests on shale cores altered by geochemical acidification, and iii) numerical modelling coupling geochemical alteration of shale and behaviour mechanics.
Wellbore: The wellbore vicinity is a crucial zone for possible leakage compromising the long term efficiency and safety of a storage site. The project is undertaking a true scale experiment in the underground rock laboratory of Mont Terri in Switzerland to reproduce conditions of a well bottom in contact with brine acidified by dissolved CO2 during one year, with fluid sampling and continuous monitoring of permeability of the shale-cement-casing interface. Overcoring and extraction of the entire system will then enable detailed identification of any potential leakage paths and geochemical interactions of the interfaces.
The Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) is the central geoscientific authority in Germany providing neutral and independent information and advice to the German Federal Government, the German parliament, national industry organizations and individual entitites. BGR also represents the Federal Republic of Germany in international geoscientific committees. It is subordinate to the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy and has a staff of around 750 people.
BGR is one of the competent authorities in Germany according to the German CCS law and it is committed in international committees with relevance for CCS such as the ISO Technical Committee “Carbon dioxide capture, transportation, and geological storage” (ISO/TC265).
BGR was one of the founding members of CO2GeoNet at the time of the EC contract and is now a cooperating partner of the CO2GeoNet Association as defined by a cooperation agreement.
Since the year 2000, BGR has been investigating various aspects of the geological storage of CO2 in different locations and regions inside and outside Germany, partnered by national and foreign research institutions, geological surveys, and industrial partners. Research activities have focused on the following topics:
The British Geological Survey
The British Geological Survey (BGS) was established in 1835 and is the United Kingdom’s national geological survey and one of the world’s major centres of geoscientific knowledge, expertise and excellence. It is the UK's premier provider of objective and authoritative geoscientific data, information and knowledge for sustainable use of natural resources, reducing risk and living with the impacts of environmental change. BGS is a public sector organization responsible for advising the UK government on all aspects of geosciences, as well as providing impartial geological advice to industry, the public and academia. BGS is a component institute of the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).
BGS is a world leader in the field of geological storage of CO2. It is the largest storage research centre in the UK with over 30 active researchers and a track record in CCS going back to 1991. Over the past two years BGS has carried out more than 60 CO2 storage projects. Our current annual Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) turnover is £1.3M. For more information please see the CO2 storage research pages on our website.
Since coordinating the first EC funded CCS research and development project (Joule 2) BGS has played a major role in CO2 storage research through projects funded by research grants from the European Commission (e.g. FP5, FP6, FP7, EuropeAid), UK funding (e.g. NERC, EPSRC, UKCCSRC), industry and through own funding. BGS has a seat on the Co-ordination Group of the UK CCS Research Centre (UKCCSRC) and provides two UKCCSRC Research Area Champions. BGS is Storage Coordinator for the CCS Joint Programme of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and is a founding partner of the CO2GeoNet Association.
Examples of a few recent projects and roles are given below:
The GeoEnergy Research Centre (GERC) is a pioneering joint venture co-founded by BGS and the University of Nottingham (UoN). As part of this partnership, the GeoEnergy Test Bed has been established, this subsurface field laboratory will be used to assess fluid-rock interaction, sensor development and to support advanced reservoir modelling techniques relating to sustainable energy technologies including CCS.
BGS hosts and develops the UK CO2 Storage Evaluation Database in partnership with The Crown Estate. This database represents a state of the art assessment of storage potential of the offshore UK. Development of the database was funded by the ETI and the Crown Estate.
BGS is a core member of the BIGCCS Centre (Research Council of Norway and industry funding, 2009 – 2017). The goal of the Centre is to enable sustainable power generation from fossil fuels based on cost-effective CCS. The BIGCCS Centre develops new knowledge and technologies required to accelerate deployment of large scale CCS through international cooperation, innovation and value creation.
BGS is responsible for development of the IEAGHG web-based storage site monitoring selection tool which identifies and prioritises technologies that could form part of a monitoring programme (funded by IEAGHG)
BGS lead the DiSECCS project (EPSRC research grant, 2013 – 2017). This project brings together monitoring datasets from the World’s three industrial scale CO2 storage sites at Sleipner, Snohvit and In Salah to develop and test advanced and innovative monitoring tools and methods for the measurement and characterisation of the CO2 storage reservoirs through advanced seismic techniques.
BGS is also partner in a new NERC-funded grant (2016-2020) to assess CO2 migration processes in storage site overburdens; Characterization of major overburden leakage pathways above sub-seafloor CO2 storage reservoirs in the North Sea (CHIMNEY).
The ULTimateCO2 FP7 project (2011 – 2015) focused on the long-term processes involved in the geological storage of CO2 in order to increase confidence in the long-term efficiency and safety of CCS. BGS was Work Package leader responsible for directing research on long-term geochemical reactions in reservoir systems following CO2 injection.
The QICS controlled subsea release project (funded by NERC and the Scottish Government, 2010 – 2014) improved understanding of the sensitivities of the UK marine environment to CO2. The aim of the project was to understand potential impacts if leakage were to occur from a CCS project. BGS was lead partner on drilling and CO2 injection for the project.
The CO2CARE project (funded through EC FP7 and industrial sponsorship, 2011 – 2014) delivered technology and procedures for abandonment and post-closure safety, satisfying the regulatory requirements for transfer of responsibility. BGS coordinated the development of dry-run site closure applications for the Sleipner, Ketzin and K12-B storage sites.
The SiteChar FP 7Project (2011 – 2013) researched development of site characterisation methodologies to satisfy European regulations relating to CO2 storage. BGS coordinated the assessment of dry-run storage licence applications for possible UK and Danish storage sites on behalf of representatives of industry, academia and regulatory bodies.
BRGM is France’s Public Institution responsible for mobilising the Earth Sciences in the sustainable management of natural resources and the subsurface domain. It contributes advice and expert assessments to public authorities.
BRGM research and development programmes support innovation and work in the following areas: mineral resources, groundwater, development planning and natural risks, environment and pollution, environmental metrology, mapping and digital information systems. With a staff of 860 employees, BRGM is present in all the Regions of France through its network of Regional Geological Surveys and has been active for many years in more than 40 countries throughout the world.
BRGM is acknowledged within France as a leading authority on CO2 sequestration. BRGM was involved in the pioneer EU Joule project ten years ago and has been involved since in many other CO2 projects: SACS, SACS2, GESTCO, NASCENT, WEYBURN, CO2NET, CO2STORE, SAMCARDS, PICOR. BRGM present expertise in CO2 research concerns: 1) geochemical modelling of CO2-water-rock interactions; 2)coupled geochemical-transport-flow modelling; 3) microseismic monitoring; 4) soil gas survey monitoring; 5) geochemical monitoring; 6) long term risk assessment. BRGM has been leading since the Joule project the Work Packages or tasks on geochemistry or geochemical and coupled modelling and is then acknowledged in Europe as an expert on the geochemical aspects of CO2 storage. BRGM will also bring to the NoE significant expertise from other research domains (e.g. geothermal energy, radioactive waste storage, mineral exploration, natural hazards, contaminated sites) that can be transferred to CO2 storage research, such as geomechanical modelling, geochemical and geomechanical experiments, and a wide range of geophysical and remote sensing monitoring methods. Concerning the other items of the Joint Programme of Activities, BRGM will have a key role in: integrating activities: share of research infrastructure (analytical and experimental facilities, modelling tools, monitoring tools), staff mobility, communication, joint research development; activities to spread excellence: professional training, conferences & workshops, media. BRGM has already experience with professional training, conferences & workshops, media in the field of CO2 research. BRGM is involved in advice to French government regarding CO2 issues by participation in two national committees: MIES (Mission Interministérielle sur l’Effet de Serre, Governmental Committee on Greenhouse Effect) and Club CO2 (French thematic club on CO2 capture and storage).
The Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH) is the largest research centre in Northern Greece.
CERTH's annual turn-over for 2014 was around 20 million Euros. Around 700 highly qualified scientists are working in the Centre. Ranking among the top 20 Research Centres in Europe (16th place, up from 18th in 2011) in FP7 competitive grant participation for the period 2007-2012.
CERTH, in collaboration with other research institutes, is carrying out fundamental and applied research focusing on capture and storage of CO2. The main targets are the development and implementation of “cleaner” coal combustion technologies and the development of innovative environmental management methods, focused on CCS technologies and use of alternative fuel sources, such as coal gasification and hydrogen production. CERTH’s longstanding experience in the field derives from the realisation of numerous EU and national energy-related projects, in collaboration with Europe’s leading power producers.
The main areas of expertise, related to CCS, are geological monitoring of CO2, Geological modelling of the CO2 storage site, environmental monitoring, CO2 mineralisation and characterisation of a CO2 storage site. The CERTH Storage infrastructure provides facilities for the characterisation of a storage site. That includes an X-Ray Diffractometer for the mineralogical characterisation of the reservoir and cap rock, a spectrophotometer for the chemical analysis of the water samples, a CHNS analyser for the determination of the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur. Moreover, the CERTH Storage is equipped with an Atomic Adsorption Spectrometer (AAS) for the determination of chemical elements and a calorimeter for the measuring of the high heating value of coal and lignite samples.
The services that are offered by CERTH Lab are achieved through the use of its equipment infrastructure and involve proof of concept experiments, heat balance studies, combustion and gasification studies, mineralogical and petrographical examination, cores/samples studies, etc. The laboratory is certified with ISO17025 for the determination of: moisture, ash, volatiles, total moisture, chlorine, CHNS, heating value, ash metals, as well as the biogenic fraction of SRF fuels. In that certification lays the uniqueness of CERTH facilities in Greece.
Czech Geological Survey (CGS / Czech Republic) is the leading geological research institution in the Czech Republic. It is a state research institute supervised by the Ministry of Environment. Its staff counts about 260 people, round 170 of them being university graduates.
Geo-energy related activities of CGS have developed a significant knowledge in the field of CO2 geological storage, monitoring of CO2 and methane migration and emanation at sediment surface, formation water geochemistry, mineralogical, optical and geochemical characterisation of the reservoir rocks and seals. CGS is Czech national country representative in ENeRG (European Network for Research in Geo-Energy) and is in charge of ENeRG website www.energnet.eu. In 2004-2011, CGS was a member of CO2NET, the Carbon Dioxide Knowledge Sharing Network. CGS took part in a series of European R&D projects, incl. the FP6 EU GeoCapacity project (Assessing European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide) and CGS Europe (FP7 Pan-European Co-ordination Action on CO2 Geological Storage). In 2006-2010, CGS coordinated CO2NET EAST, a FP6 project focused on CCS knowledge transfer and awareness raising in new EU Member States and Candidate Countries.
- OXY-CFB-300 Compostilla Project (EEPR-funded), technology development;
- FP7: ECCSEL & IMPACTS.
- Other research projects: EM-Hontomín or IMPACT-CO2.
- Knowledge sharing project under preparation with GCCSI.
There are several activities within the above mentioned projects, lab-scale activities related to characterization of samples before & after the experimental injection of impure CO2 streams; the study of bioindicators at the PISCO2 facility, where different & controlled CO2 fluxes are injected in isolated cells filled with soils; testing of injection strategies at an onshore large scale pilot on CO2 Storage in Hontomín, where a set of monitoring techniques will be tested, as well as the methodologies which best apply to that research scope.
Public perception activities are being developed at different locations including the area of Hontomín, where local population, including authorities are engaged with the project, due to a successful and proactive communication plan.
ETH Zurich is one of the leading international universities for technology and the natural sciences. It is well-known for its excellent education, ground-breaking fundamental research and for implementing its results directly into practice. Founded in 1855, ETH Zurich today has more than 18,500 students from over 110 countries, including 4,000 doctoral students. To researchers, it offers an inspiring working environment, to students, a comprehensive education. Twenty-one Nobel Laureates have studied, taught or conducted research at ETH Zurich, underlining the excellent reputation of the university. According to the 2015 QS Rankings by Subject, ETH Zurich's earth scientists performed especially well, achieving the top rank for the subject Earth & Marine Sciences.
Among ETH Zurich’s strategic focus areas are climate change and energy science. In particular, energy research at ETH Zurich is geared towards the aim of enabling the 1-tonne CO2 society. Hence, ETH Zurich has taken the role of the leading house in various national projects dealing with the Carbon Capture and Storage value chain. The project CARMA explored the potential and feasibility of CCS systems deployment in Switzerland, and led to the development of a Swiss CCS roadmap to a CO2 injection test. The storage pilot test got integrated in the ongoing Swiss Competence Centre for Energy Research - Supply of Electricity. Furthermore, ETH Zurich hosts the Swiss Seismological Service with its recognized specialists for injection-induced seismicity. At European level, ETH Zurich is in the core group of ECCSEL, the European Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure project. The goal is to establish and operate a world class network of complementary distributed CCS laboratories and a limited set of pilots and test sites.
Relevant memberships and project experience:
The Geological Survey of Austria belongs to the Ministry of Science and Research, and is acting like a department of the Ministry and therefore is not a separate legal entity.
The main tasks of the institute is the geological mapping of Austria, research in applied geology covering hydrogeology, natural resources, engineering geology, geochemistry, geophysics and geothermal. In addition it runs the biggest geological database and library in Austria. As a national expert pool servicing public institutions as well as the private economy, its tasks are formulated and published by a national law in Austria. This work has been performed continuously since 1849.
Since 2008 the Geological Survey of Austria is a member of the “CO2 Storage task group in Austria” which consists of representatives from federal authorities, universities and the oil-industry. The main objective of this group is to investigate the geoscientific, technical and legal aspects of potential CO2 storage in Austria.
The future role of GBA will be the main advisor of the Ministries in Austria awarding licences for CCS to companies.
The National Institute of Marine Geology and Geo-ecology of Romania- GeoEcoMar, is a research and development institute established in 1993, under the co-ordination of the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research.
The main activities of GeoEcoMar relate to marine, deltaic and fluvial environmental and geoecological studies regarding the ecosystems of the River Danube - Danube Delta - coastal Black Sea geosystem; the environmental impact of anthropogenic structures (civil and hydrotechnical works) that are located along the Danube course and in the Danube Delta; geological-geophysical-geoecological survey of the Black Sea as well as of other marine areas; study of natural hazards in Black Sea environment (submarine landslides, tsunami, major storms, etc).
In recent years, under the leadership of Dr.eng. Constantin-Stefan Sava, Head of the Geophysical Methods for Deep Investigations Department, the Institute has started studies and analysis connected with the greenhouse emissions in Romania as well as the possibility of geological storage of CO2. Scientists from GeoEcoMar were and are actively participating in FP-6 projects: CASTOR, as subcontractors, EU Geocapacity and CO2 Net East as well as in FENCO-ERA project: Impact of communication. To boost the activity in this field in 2007 a CO2 Club was established.,Scientists from GeoEcoMar have a large experience in disseminating CCS knowledge in Romania, are involved in preparing a local CCS demonstration project by assessing potential storage sites and provide the geological expertise for the implementation of EU Directive on CO2 geological storage in Romania.
National activities/networks: GeoEcoMar is part of the national task force organised at governmental level for the implementation of the EU Directive for CO2 storage and is a founder member of the CO2 Club association.
Geoinzeniring, a SME company is engaged in geological engineering and is one of the leading companies of its kind in Slovenia. It was established in 1998 as a limited liability company. Prior to that, it has a noteworthy tradition, which had started in 1946 with its legal predecessors (1946 – 1954 Geological Institute of Slovenia, 1954 - 1991 Geological Institute Ljubljana, 1991 - 1998 Institute for Geology, Geotechnic and Geophysics).
The company's main activities comprise investigations, project designing and consulting in the areas of soil and rock mechanics, engineering geology and engineering geophysics. The co-ordination of these activities allows the company to provide complete, cost-effective and environment friendly solutions. The modern measuring and laboratory equipment and extensive data bases enable professional staff to perform wide range of services, such as projects for infrastructure and power plants, geological and environmental hazard, water and mineral resources.
Geoinzeniring is Slovenian national country representative in ENeRG (European Network for Research in Geo-Energy). Geoinzeniring has participated in international CCS related projects (CASTOR WP2.1, EU GeoCapacity, dissemination activities of CO2NET EAST, CO2StoP, CGS Europe) and acts as a leading knowledge transfer body in the area of CCS in the country. CO2 storage, monitoring and verification as well as utilisation of the deep subsurface is of our particular interest.
The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), established in 1888, is a research and advisory institute under the Danish Ministry for Environment and Energy.
The main mission of GEUS comprises provision of R&D and advisory services for government agencies, local authorities and private enterprises in Denmark as well as internationally. Key scientific areas include: ground water and surface water resources, petroleum resources and subsurface energy storage/disposal, raw materials and minerals resources, geological mapping of Denmark, Greenland and the Faeroe Islands, marine geology, environmental impacts assessment, and physical & electronic data storage for the Kingdom. Current staff is about 450, with some 200 holding academic degrees. Annual turnover is about DKK 225 million (c. 30 million Euro). GEUS has conducted research pertaining to geological sequestration of CO2 since 1993, being one of the European pioneers in this area. GEUS has lead or contributed to a number of RTD projects, including; SACS Phases Zero, 1 and 2, GESTCO (project manager), CO2NET 1 & 2 (initiator and co-ordinator of RTD strategy activity), Weyburn (Canadian CO2 EOR), CCP (sub-project on aquifer storage) and CO2Store (co-ordinator of 4 onshore site-specific activities). In addition, GEUS is actively engaged in a number of international forums including IEA (Greenhouse Gas Programme, Oil and Gas Advisory Group, WPFF Task Force on Zero Emissions), European Commission and Parliament (expert workshops, evaluations, FEE etc.) and the IPCC ongoing activity aiming at gaining acceptance of CO2 capture and storage as a Kyoto Protocol mechanism.
GFZ was founded in 1992 as the national research institution for geosciences in Germany and is ab initio member of the Helmholtz Association of National Research Centres. With currently 1100 staff GFZ combines all solid earth science fields including geodesy, geology, geophysics, mineralogy, palaeontology and geochemistry, in a multidisciplinary scientific and technical environment.
The GFZ is built up by five departments: geodesy and remote sensing, physics of the Earth, geodynamics and geomaterials, chemistry of the Earth, and Earth surface processes. The departments are accompanied by Geo-Engineering Centres, e.g., for tsunami early warning, for geothermal energy research, and underground storage of CO2.
The Centre for Geological Storage CGS is in charge of management and research at the CO2 storage site of Ketzin. There, the storage of a maximum 100,000 t of CO2 is permitted (65,000 tonnes of CO2 already injected by May 2013) and several European and German projects are already integrated, among them CO2SINK and CO2ReMoVe. Their synergy is leading to an exhaustive characterization of the site and has allowed the development and deployment of a rich and innovative monitoring network to observe the plume migration and reservoir behaviour. The Centre for Geological Storage CGS is also active at the international level, as member of the International Performance assessment Centre for CO2-Storage (IPAC) and within the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI) with the University of Alberta.
Relevant project experience (most recent only):
The Central Mining Institute (GIG), established in 1925, is one of the largest research institutes in Poland, working for the benefit of the mining industry and also for the enterprises representing different branches, state and local administration and foreign partners. GIG’s activities are mainly focused on mining and environmental engineering, occupational safety, material engineering, education and training. As one of the very first European scientific organizations GIG got involved in CCS-related issues i.e. RECOPOL project and later into MOVECBM, CO2REMOVE, ECCSEL, TOPS and many other CCS-related activities. GIG is actively involved in all aspects of CCS/CCU chain i.e.: Capture – Transport – Storage – Use providing also expertise on risk assessment and public perceptions of CCS/CCU. GIG has a unique combination of highly qualified scientists, modern laboratories and equipment, making it one of the well-known R&D units with more than 90 years of international expertise and scientific excellence.
The Institute of Petroleum Engineering at Heriot-Watt University (HWU) is internationally recognised for the quality of teaching and research. In 2015, we celebrated our 40th anniversary, and gained the Queen’s Anniversary Prize in recognition of the pioneering research.
Several research groups are involved in projects related to CO2.
SCCS Research Projects
A number of projects have been carried out as part of SCCS (Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage – www.sccs.org.uk). HWU is a founder member of this group, along with the British Geological Survey and the University of Edinburgh. We have taken part in projects to assess potential storage sites in deep saline formations under the North Sea, and also to evaluate enhanced oil recovery and CO2 storage in hydrocarbon reservoirs. In particular, we specialise in numerical simulation of CO2 injection into realistic reservoir models.
Centre for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO2 Solutions
This group performs experiments on core plugs and micromodels to investigate oil and gas recovery mechanisms at high pressures and temperatures. They also perform numerical simulations to generalise the results of the research.
PVT and Hydrates
The PVT group studies the effect of impurities on the properties of CO2.
The Institute of Earth Sciences (ICT) is a research center hosted by 3 Portuguese universities: University of Évora, University of Minho and University of Porto. ICT currently has 78 researchers (PhD) organized in six groups: Atmospheric Sciences, Water and Climate; Georesources and Geomaterials; Geoconservation and Geoscience Education; Environmental Monitoring and Remediation for Sustainability; and Lithosphere Dynamics.
Research on CCUS started at ICT in 2008 and resulted in the storage capacity assessment and definition of transport options for Portugal, within the scope of projects KTEJO and COMET. ICT was a partner in developing the CCS Roadmap for Portugal and has been actively promoting the technology amongst the members of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. Currently ICT is involved in project INCARBON and in the STRATEGY CCUS Coordination and Support Action.
IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) is a major research and training player in the fields of energy, transport and the environment. From research to industry, technological innovation is central to all its activities, structured around three strategic priorities: sustainable mobility, new energies and responsible oil and gas.
IFPEN develops technologies to address the demand for major chemical intermediates and oil products meeting the strictest standards in terms of vehicle pollutant emissions, at the same time reducing their environmental impact and CO2 emissions. In addition, IFPEN works with the oil and related industries on cutting-edge technologies in target sectors, such as exploration, enhanced oil recovery, offshore production or gas sweetening.
IFPEN mission is to provide the industry with innovative and efficient tools and technologies, with a view to ensure a safe and sustainable energy transition. Delivering processes, chemicals, equipments, software and methodologies for CO2 capture and geological storage is one priority of IFPEN.
IFPEN is working on the whole CCS chain, developing innovative industrial processes for capturing CO2 and knowledge and tools for the management of CO2 geological storage. IFPEN is a major actor in this field, coordinating and participating in many national and European projects for more than 20 years.
Instituto Geológico y Minero de España- IGME is a public research organism that belongs to the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation.
Its goal is to provide support to other administration bodies and to the society in general about all activities related to Earth Sciences. IGME has been a partner of the GeoCapacity Project and it is now Work Package coordinator at the COMET Project, both financed by the Framework Programme.
IGME has also participated in national initiatives related to geological storage, as PSE-CO2 project and CenitCO2. In this project, technicians involved belong to the area of Subsoil and Geological Storages Investigation. IGME is also ivolved in the monitorization programme of the pilot test site of Hontomín, ran by the City of Energy Foundation (CIUDEN).
Fields of Experties
Imperial College is a technological university having a strong international reputation in teaching and research across the main areas of science and technology. The College has around 1750 full-time members of academic and research staff involved in research.
In the latest Higher Education Funding Council Research Assessment Exercise, covering all universities, the Department was accredited with the maximum score of 5* for its international research excellence. Research carried out by the Group at Imperial College since 1990 has established the Group as an internationally recognised multi-disciplinary research centre dealing with coalbed methane and enhanced coalbed methane technology, environmental modelling and risk assessment. A number of projects funded by the UK Research Councils, UK Department of Trade and Industry, the European Commission and industry led to the development of a unique CMB simulator (METSIM) which has recently been extended as an ECBM/CO2 Storage simulator (METSIM2) through the EC Energie Programme funded project ICBM, co-ordinated by IMPERIAL.
Examples of related research projects:
(1) "Numerical simulation of methane flow in coal seams",
(2) "An experimental and theoretical investigation into coalbed methane well performance prediction and stimulation modelling",
(3) "Coalbed methane well stimulation-modelling and performance prediction",
(4) "An investigation into horizontal borehole technology for improved coalbed methane recovery",
(5) “Methane production simulation from abandoned mines (METSIM)”,
(6) “An investigation into the effects of matrix swelling on coal permeability for ECBM and CO2 sequestration assessment",
(7) “Development of advanced reservoir characterisation and simulation tools for improved Coalbed Methane Recovery (ICBM)”,
(8) “Assessment of hazardous gas emissions to the surface over former mined areas (MINGAS)”,
(9) “An experimental investigation into permeability enhancement in coalbed methane reservoirs”,
(10) “Modelling the uncertainty and risks associated with the design and life cycle of CO2 sequestration in coalbed methane reservoirs (ECBM-RISK),
(11) ”ECBM Software Code development/comparison project (Geo-Seq)”,
(12) “CO2, from capture to storage (CASTOR)”,
(13) “CO2 Life Cycle and Impact Assessment in Capture and Geological Storage (CO2LCA).
Middle East Technical University Petroleum Research Center (METU PAL) was founded in 1991 with the collaboration of Middle East Technical University Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, General Directorate of Petroleum Affairs and Undersecretariat of Treasury. METU PAL is a developed research center that continues fuel quality check analysis and provides national/ international consulting services as well as analytical solutions about petroleum industry and any related energy and environmental issues. Since 1994, METU PAL provides quality check and standard compliance control analysis to the petroleum sector and since 2004 the center has the accreditation provided by Turkish Accrediation Agency (TURKAK) on TS EN ISO IEC 17025 Standard. Analysis of gasoline, diesel oil, fuel oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), mineral oil and waste oil quality check are conducted at METU PAL with high technology equipment. With the continuous follow-up of fuel that is transferred from refineries to distribution companies, from fuel stations to the consumers, both consumers and companies are protected. In this context, METU PAL is designated as an umpire laboratory with the February, 15 2001- Number: 24319 issue of The Official Gazette by Undersecretariat of Customs. Center is also conducting researches related to oil/gas and geothermal reservoir evaluations, natural gas and carbon dioxide storage. PAL is involved in international and national projects such as CGS Europe, ENOS as well as some contracted researhes in petroleum and geothermal sector.
Mission of METU PAL:
Main objectives of METU PAL:
Based on its quality policy, METU PAL continues its activities according to national/ international standards with high technology test equipment, participates in inter-laboratory comparison tests and uses reference/ standard materials. METU PAL targets to meet the needs of the sector with its continuously trained professional personnel.
METU PAL has Fuel Analysis Laboratory, Waste Oil Analysis Laboratory, Natural Gas Analysis Laboratory, LPG Analysis Laboratory and Computerized Tomography Laboratory.
Since 2006, METU PAL continues the inter-laboratory comparison scheme LabKar, which was accredited according to ISO/ IEC 17043 on September 23, 2014 by Turkish Accrediation Agency (TURKAK). In the context of inter-laboratory proficiency testing scheme LabKar, participant laboratories receive diesel oil, gasoline, mineral oil, LPG samples twice a year and biodiesel, fuel oil, jet fuel samples once a year. In 2015, 72 laboratories had participated in LabKar and the results of the analysis of 208 parameters for different fuel types were collected, evaluated statistically and reported. By LabKar, it is aimed at that participant laboratories conduct fuel analysis determined by legislators according to standards, evaluate their test results and improve their performance.
NIVA, the Norwegian Institute for Water Research, is the leading applied water research institute in Norway, covering both fresh water and sea water quality and flora/fauna. The institute is widely engaged in environmental and toxicological and assessments on contract from industry as well as governmental bodies.
NIVA has large onshore facilities for messocosm studies as well as a ISO-certificated national laboratory for chemical water analyses. Its scientific staff of around 200 covers biological and environmental knowledge necessary for the assessments of marine impacts from CO2 leaks. NIVA presently coordinates the Norwegian efforts in the international CTI project on ocean CO2 sequestration with emphasis on environmental impact from deep CO2 releases. This project has important international links and relations to the present proposed Norwegian program and mutual spin-off and information exchange will be essential. In additional, NIVA will from 2004 on join an international consortium to study methane hydrates on/under the seabed, and the impacts from possible exploitation of this significant gas resource. NIVA has been a partner to an international CTI project on ocean CO2 sequestration since 1997. From 2001 NIVA was the co-ordinator of this project, that is, for the experimental parts with release of liquid CO2 near the seabed to study environmental effects on and above the bottom. The experiment was brought to a halt in 2002 due to protests from some environmental groups (see NATURE, 5 Sept. 2001, p 6), but there are still plans to do this experiment, which would foster relevant spin-off to the new NoE as well. Of particular relevance may be the network and co-operation with US, Japanese, Norwegian and Canadian deepwater biologists, experts on CO2 plume modelling, and experts in various other fields related to carbon storage. NIVA is a partner to a project with Statoil Norway to study impacts from CO2 leaking from underground reservoirs. NIVA is attached to the work to produce a special report for the IPCC on Carbon Sequestration as decided at the last IPCC meeting in Paris (see NATURE, 27 February, p 879). In co-operation with the Norwegian Underwater Institute in Bergen we have been planning for long-time hyperbaric experiments in pressure chambers with CO2 and sediments. NIVA has a wide range of oceanographic equipment suitable for doing benthic layer measurements and taking samples, physical, biological and chemical.
NORCE is an independent research institute with research and research-related activities in Energy, Marine Environment, Social Science and Business Development with high focus on applied research. I
RIS was established in 2006 as a continuation of Rogaland Research, (founded 1973), when it became equally owned by the University of Stavanger and the regional foundation Rogalandsforskning.
NORCE - Energy focuses on research and development of new technologies related to safe and environmentally sound exploration and exploitation of oil and gas, sustainable energy, and storage of carbon dioxide. More than 35 years of research and development have given significant contributions to the oil and gas industry, especially within improved oil recovery and cost efficient and safe drilling operations. Verification is performed in full scale at the onshore Ullrig Drilling and Well Centre and in our Petroleum laboratory facilities.
Automated Drilling and Multiphase Reservoir Flow are IRIS Energy's priority areas.
Our capabilities and work functions span from oil field reviews and consulting, to the development of specialized and applied research techniques. Different modelling and reservoir simulations are used in a range of cases from early exploration of hydrocarbon potential, to production optimization, data assimilation using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) technique, IOR technologies and flow of hydrocarbons or CO2 in reservoirs. State of the art laboratory facilities provide required parameters, product testing and development supporting our research activities.
Within CCS research projects IRIS are using its experience in
The "Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale – OGS" is the Italian national research institute that promotes and performs researches and operates as national reference for co-ordinating the Italian participation in entities, projects and international research initiatives in the fields of oceanography and experimental geophysics.
In detail, the OGS performs:
1) studies and research in the fields of geophysics and environmental sciences, with special consideration to the development of applied research and its transfer to production market;
2) studies, applied research and technological development in the field of exploration, exploitation and storage of geo-energy and energy residues, as CO2, on land and at sea, in Italy and abroad;
3) studies and research in marine sciences, with a particular view to the interaction of the marine and oceanic environment with the atmosphere and the lithosphere;
4) studies and research aimed at acquiring knowledge on seismicity as well as the analysis of geodynamical and hydrodynamical phenomena influencing the environment, also for civil defence purposes;
5) studies and research aimed at developing technologies for data acquisition, processing and archiving, and new interpretative technologies applied to the exploitation of land resources and towards a better utilization of the territory.
In its long activity, OGS has gained a solid base of experience in applied researches and high-technology services for public and private clients. Of particular note are the following:
a) many years of experience in Antarctic research, using the OGS-Explora, under the aegis of the National Research Program in Antarctica (PNRA);
b) consolidated experience in seismic exploration for hydrocarbons and other minerals, and for studying the earth’s crust;
c) participation in more than 40 RTD projects financed by the European Community (Joule, Thermie, Environment, Mast, Brite-Euram programs etc...) often as co-ordinator;
d) participation in large oceanographic programs for studying the Mediterranean Sea, for protecting the marine environment (Adriatic Sea), and for marine engineering;
e) many international collaborations and with research institutions and the energy and raw materials industry, particularly ENI-AGIP, ENEL, ENEA, Statoil, Norsk Hydro.
OGS is partially funded by the Italian Government according to a Three-Years Plan of Activity. In the actual one, the following researches, related to the geological confinement of CO2, are funded:
OGS is the co-ordinator of the Italian Project “Geological sequestration of CO2 and development of the related technologies” , involving OGS, ENEA, ENI-Agip, Aquater, CNR, URS and other 13 universities. This project is in the final assessment stage and should start in October 2003.
The Polish Geological Institute – National Research Institute, founded in 1919, is the largest R&D institute in Polish geology.
PGI-NRI coordinated the National Programme "Assessment of formations and structures suitable for safe CO2 geological storage including monitoring plans" (2008-2012/2013; Ministry of Environment) where over 60 PGI employees have been involved in various tasks and other five Polish partners were involved (AGH, CMI, O&GI, MEERI PAS, PBG - in total about two hundred people). The programme was to provide information necessary for future permits on exploration of CO2 storage sites all over the country and characterize selected storage sites using archive data and laboratory analyzes on drill core samples. Another project (O&GI, PGI-NRI; Ministry of Environment) was devoted to techno-economic aspects of CO2-EOR and CO-EGR in Poland. PGI has provided expertise to the first Polish demo project Bełchatów (a dozen people involved in total) and other CCS projects which have been planned as well (e.g. the planned new CCS-ready power blocks), leading prefeasibility studies on CO2 storage and transport for power companies and elaborating relevant EEPR and NER300 applications (including the formerly planned CCS demo project of PKE&ZAK in Kędzierzyn). We have been involved in several studies on pilot CO2 injection (sandstone Jurassic aquifer), where for the final location (in central Poland) a research/injection permit was granted by Ministry of Environment and research infrastructure was planned to be constructed within PGI facility (wells, monitoring infrastructure) but now another initiative on pilot injection project located in the vicinity of TAURON pilot capture facilities in southern Poland is planned. Now, modelling and laboratory studies on CO2 injection into gas bearing shales (Norway grants) as well as paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic studies on correlation of regional caprock formations (Ministry of Science and Higher Education) are being conducted. FP7 projects: CGS Europe, ECCSEL PP & PP2
The Geological Survey of Belgium, department of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, is a geo-scientific documentation centre and is a central player in national and international research and development projects.
Information and materials dealing with the subsoil can be consulted here. In order to do this, modern and historical data that become available through research and exploration, are digitally processed in databases and geographical information systems. On request, this information is processed into specific end-user products or advice. Various scientific disciplines are necessary to do this, e.g. cartography, sedimentology, mineralogy, stratigraphy, geophysics and building materials. As a part of our service providing mission, also basic social issues are dealt with, like how to use and process the subsoil in a sustainable way, and how to cope with problems caused by inappropriate use. Special attention goes to urban geology, water resources, climate change, mineral resources, environment and geo-hazards. Geology is a part of experiencing nature. That is why the development of geoparks and geosites is stimulated.
The GeoEnergy group of the Geological Survey of Belgium originated with the exploration campaigns for coal in the Flanders and the Walloon region. The expertise was extended with projects including exploration for hydrocarbons, geothermal energy, heat-cold storage, subsoil gasification of coal, storage of natural gas and reutilising mining infrastructure. From 2000 on, research is performed on the possibilities of geological storage of CO2 for national and international projects. This includes coordination of the PSS-CCS projects (Policy Support System for Carbon Capture and Storage), which are the national umbrella projects on CCS in Belgium.
Sapienza University of Rome is one of the founding members of CO2GeoNet, with a central role in the areas of gas migration mechanisms and communication of research outcomes.
The Sapienza Universityis an internationally recognised centre of excellence for education and cutting edge research. It combines its 700-year scientific tradition with a constant commitment to innovation and the spreading of knowledge. Eleven faculties coordinate over 65 departments, 59 libraries and 21 museums, serving more than 115.000 students.
It is represented in the network by the Tectonic and Fluid Geochemistry Laboratory, based at the Earth Science Department and member of the CERI Research Centre for Geological Risks. The laboratory is specialised in near-surface gas and water geochemistry since 1980, social aspects of scientific research since 2000, and structural geology since 2006, with applications focussed on CCS research over the last 10 years. In the laboratory, researchers from the fields of geology, engineering and social science work together. The wide knowledge base and expertise within the group allows for an integrated scientific research approach, which comprises soil gas studies and structural geology studies, the engineering of innovative monitoring sensors and prototypes, and the development of tools and channels for the communication with stakeholders and the public.
Research conducted in the Sapienza Tectonics and Fluid Geochemistry Lab during more than 30 years of its existence, has addressed a wide range of topics related to, for example, natural hazards (faults, earthquakes, volcanoes), environmental impact (groundwater contamination), and resource exploration (oil and gas, geothermal, minerals), as well as studies examining the safety of storing nuclear waste or CO2 gas in the deep geological sub-surface.
Research Topics and Activities
Natural Field Labs - The Tectonics and Fluid Geochemistry Lab team has developed the concept of the natural field laboratory, as a main tool for developing research activities applied to geological storage. Natural field laboratories are sites where naturally produced CO2 is leaking at the ground surface, both onshore and offshore. These sites can be properly equipped to allow researchers from different fields and countries work together in an open air laboratory.
The studies in these natural conditions allow to:
- to better understand gas migration mechanisms in the geological environment (e.g. along faults and fracture networks);
- to test a wide range of monitoring techniques that have been proposed for use at CCS sites (e.g. soil gas, gas flux, open path lasers, remote sensing, shallow geophysics, etc.);
- to examine the possible impacts of a CO2 leak on the ecosystem and on groundwater quality.
The most important natural field labs where the group has developed its activities are the Latera caldera (photo above), the San Vittorino valley, and Panarea Island.
Near surface gas geochemistry:
1) discontinuous monitoring - The Tectonics and Fluid Geochemistry Lab is one of the most experienced European research group in this field, having used soil gas geochemistry and gas flux methods since the early 1980’s as a tool for environmental, resource exploration and risk assessment studies. A large database covering the whole National territory, with more than 40.000 gas samples, has been collected in the last 20 years.
Much of the work has been focussed on using natural field laboratories to better understand gas migration processes, to improve methodologies and to test new ones, as laser systems for atmospheric monitoring and gas sensing probes for continuous monitoring. This group has also conducted extensive research on CCS industrial sites such as In Salah (Algeria), Sulcis (Sardinia), and 5 years of monitoring at Weyburn (Canada).
Areas sampled by the Tectonics and Fluid Geochemistry Lab during the last 20 years
A particular scenario for gas monitoring are populated areas with natural release of CO2 and other gases of deep origin like Radon, such as the city of Ciampino on the southern edge of Rome and the Latera caldera. In these areas soil gas and aqueous geochemical surveys were performed, as well as gas measurements in private homes. GIS models were developed, indicating zones of elevated risk, and activities with the general public to improve local understanding and safety. These activities are still ongoing, and new sampling strategies are developing, with the aims to combine continuous and discontinuous monitoring, to cover the spatial and temporal scale of observation. Moreover, research focus at the moment is on baseline studies and how a potential leakage anomaly can be separated from background near-surface biological “noise”, as well as improved monitoring strategies, tool development, and data interpretation.
2) Continuous monitoring: CO2GasPro monitoring station.
The team of the Tectonics and Fluid Geochemistry Lab has developed, constructed, and deployed a number of autonomous stations for the continuous monitoring of both CO2 and CH4 concentrations in air (that is, in the unsaturated soil horizon or on ground surface) and CO2 concentration in water (in groundwater wells or in surface water bodies). The system can be configured for either real-time data access via an Internet-based server or with an internal memory for intermittent data download where continual data transfer is difficult (e.g. the deep ocean).
Groundwater and surface water geochemistry.
The Tectonics and Fluid Geochemistry Lab has over 30 years of experience in aqueous geochemistry studies as applied to a wide variety of geological studies, and has laboratory capability for the analysis of major and trace elements and dissolved gases. Studies related to CCS include: examining the impact of natural CO2 seepage on the quality of shallow groundwater within the San Vittorino valley and of surface seawater near Panarea Island; studying dissolved gas distributions and processes in surface water at gas-leaking natural sites (Panarea Island, Black Sea) and at proposed industrial storage sites (Adriatic Sea); and testing long-term monitoring methods for groundwater tracers in shallow wells as related to seismic activity and sinkhole development within the city of Camaiore.
Fracture modelling and fault characterization
From 2006 the Tectonics and Fluid Geochemistry Lab team includes the contribution of structural geologists. This has allowed the group to enrich its research, integrating the study of soil gas migration with fracture modelling, fault zone characterization, geological modelling and seismic interpretation. All these aspects cover a fundamental role in the site characterization phase of geological storage. In particular, the occurrence of faults in the overburden and within the reservoir requires dedicated studies to support the development of appropriate risk assessment and monitoring strategies. Research is being developed to coupled fault zone geometry and potential leakage. The group is also engaged in fracture modelling, which is an important step to assess the capacity of a potential CO2 storage reservoir, using a field analogue approach, developed in collaboration with Schlumberger.
Study of CO2 storage perception and communication.
Since the year 2000 the Tectonics and Fluid Geochemistry Lab has started to explore the challenges of geological studies’ dissemination. Psychological studies have been undertaken to understand how to communicate the research outcomes to stakeholders and the public. In the context of CO2GeoNet the group has become a leader for Spreading of Excellence activities, coordinating the partners and promoting the integration of multidisciplinary research in the field of CO2 storage and its user friendly communication. Growingly has emerged the importance of interaction of the researchers with the wider societal context, to better address in their work what is of interest and concern to society. This has led the members of the lab to further develop tools for communicating science, as for instance lay reports and videos, and research experiences of direct sharing with stakeholders, the media and the public, as in the FP7 R&Dialogue project. A new phase of this work is going to take place in the context of the Horizon 2020 project ENOS. Research will be dedicated to explore how the collaboration of researchers with members of the public and of the local community, can help the development of satisfactory standards for all, in the best practice guidelines for the geological storage of CO2.
CCS European Community Projects
Our portfolio of EC funded projects on CCS includes in the Sixth Framework Programme: Nascent, CO2ReMoVe, MovECBM, CO2GeoNet. In the Seventh Framework Programme: RISCS, ECO2, SiteChar, CGS Europe and R&Dialogue.
Sintef is a fully consolidated subsidiary of the SINTEF Group. The institute is organised as six departments: Basin modelling, Seismics, Formation physics, Drilling and well technology, Multiphase flow laboratory and Reservoir technology.
Professionals are specialized in areas as physics, geophysics, geology, petroleum engineering, chemistry, fluid mechanics, mechanical engineering, electronics and cybernetics. There is a close collaboration between Sintef and the other institutes within the SINTEF Group and several universities, predominantly NTNU.
Since 1987 the institute has accomplished close to 40 CO2 related projects within process technology, concepts for reduction of CO2 emissions and CO2 based EOR and aquifer storage of CO2. The institute had a prominent position within the SACS project within the field of reservoir modelling, reservoir simulation and seismic monitoring. Presently Sintef are involved in a five year competence project with user involvement (2002-2006) with overall objectives to develop a methodology to determine the optimal strategy for CO2 injection in oil reservoirs and to develop a methodology to determine the storage capacity, residence time and relevant safety aspects related to CO2 storage in aquifers in a given region. Both main activities also include seismic monitoring of injected CO2. The institute is also involved in CO2-store, CCP as well as several industry projects addressing CO2-EOR.
Sintef performs integrated reservoir studies that includes building of reservoir models based on available seismic, geological, well, fluid and core data, reservoir simulations for various production scenarios, identification of optimal development schemes and preparation of well and drilling plans. The institute has a complete infrastructure for integrated reservoir studies including reservoir technology and formation physics laboratories, necessary software and computer installations.
Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Geology (TalTechDG) is a research and education institution. Department of Geology (former institute of Geology of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, later TTUGI) is one of the departments of the TalTech School of Science. It is research, development and teaching department of the university. TalTechDG (TTUGI) is a pioneer in CO 2 storage research and education institution in Estonia, providing academic CO 2 storage course to international students.
TalTechDG (TTUGI) participated in EU FP and EC projects (EU GeoCapacity, CO2NetEAST, CGS Europe and CO2Stop), made research and provides regular consultations to major national energy company Eesti Energia and to the Ministry of the Environment of Estonia. TalTechDG is an active member of the BASRECCS Network launched in 2014 and participated in the BASRECCS Board since 2018. TalTechDG disseminating information in the field of CCS using CCS technology portal in Estonian and Russian and giving interview to Estonian media. TalTech DG was co-organiser of the Baltic Carbon Forum and organiser of the BASRECCS-ENOS workshop in Tallinn in September 2018. TalTech DG is a leader of the CO 2 use, transport and storage study for the cement industry (WP7) in the Horizon 2020 project CLEANKER.
TTUGI cooperates with CO2Geonet since 2005 and became its member in 2014. The main areas of expertise are EU CCS Legislation; CO 2 storage capacity, 3D geological, geochemical, petrophysical, geophysical and economic modelling in the Baltic Sea Region. Our research results are included in our publications, PhD research of Kazbulat Shogenov and presented at the international conferences.
Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) is the largest fully independent Research, Development and Consultancy organisation in the Netherlands with a staff of about 5,400 and a total annual turnover of about 515 million Euros.
TNO its primary tasks are to support and assist trade and industry including SME’s, governments and others in technological innovation and in solving problems by rendering services and transferring knowledge and expertise. TNO has been and is participating in many EU programmes aiming at technological development. TNO performs its widely ranging activities in 15 independent institutes. TNO will be involved in the proposed work by “The Netherlands Institute of Applied Geosience - TNO National Geological Survey”, which is the central institute for geoscientific information and research in the Netherlands, working for the sustainable management and use of the subsurface and the natural resources found there. The applied geoscientific and associated technology research as well as the complex geo-advisory carried out by the institute fits with the geoscientific and technological components that are carried out by governments and business, both national and international. The institute has a long history of CO2 storage research starting more than 10 years ago with a few researchers to now at a big scale with 10-20 researchers involved in various aspects the field of CO2 sequestration. These aspects include geoscience on CO2 fluid flow in reservoirs and aquifers, geochemical and geomechanical subsurface process modelling and seismic monitoring, biogeological and hydrogeological surface process modelling and monitoring. It also includes strategy studies and health safety and environmental studies applying the geoscientific knowledge developed.
The institute closely operates with “TNO Environment, Energy and Process Innovation (TNO-MEP)” is an expert centre and contract research institute for industry and government in the field of sustainable development and environmentally oriented process innovation. This institute has also been involved in development of CO2-capture technology and related consultancy since the early nineties. TNO-NITG has been very activly involved in the creation of several relevant European networks: ENeRG, Eurogeosurveys and CO2NET. TNO will act on behalf of the Netherland’s Research School on Solid Geo-science, comprised by the University of Utrech, Fries University of Amsterdam and the Technical University of Delft.
University of Zagreb - Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering (UNIZG-RGNF). The Faculty is a part of the University of Zagreb and consists of several institutes that are jointly teaching four studies – Mining Engineering, Geology, Geological Engineering and Petroleum Engineering.
There are also PhD programmes in respective fields. Staff consists of 56 professors, 28 assistants and 27 other teaching collaborators. Apart from the primary activity in high education, they are usually engaged both in exploration and research activities funded by the government (20 active projects started in 2007 funded by the Croatian Ministry for Science, Education and Sport) and in various expert tasks for other investors. This research covers a wide range of activities related either to mining (blasting, soil and rock mechanics, mine completion, open pit exploitation etc.), geology (geological mapping, structure geology, petroleum geology, engineering geology, hydrogeology, geophysical prospecting, deposits of mineral raw materials etc.) or to petroleum engineering (drilling techniques, well fluids, reservoir development, management of HC reserves, production of HC’s and geothermal water, gas management, safety techniques and protection of environment).
Faculty is the CCS R&D leader in Croatia, the country representative in ENeRG (informal organisation – European Network for Research in Geo-Energy), has participated in the two ongoing FP6 projects: EU GeoCapacity (STREP) and CO2NetEAST (CA). In EU GeoCapacity, the main activities included mapping of the regional CO2 storage potential in various types of sinks (covering both the territory of the Republic of Croatia and of the neighbouring Bosnia and Herzegovina), and, as a part of the activity, coordinating the investigations done in the Southern group of countries (Bosnia-Croatia-Slovenia-Italy-Spain) in terms of joint methodology and cross-border correlation. In the coordinated action CO2NET EAST, the faculty has promoted the dissemination of the CCS-related research and knowledge in Croatia and neighbouring countries. In FP7 the faculty participates in the integrated project ECCO, mainly in transferring the Croatian experience in on-shore CO2 injection pilot project.
The Department of Earth Sciences at Uppsala University has over 250 employees and teaches more than 2200 students every year. Our focus is on research which means that 75% of what we do is research and 25% is education. At least 30 nationalities are represented at the department.
We have teaching at undergraduate and graduate levels. Our courses offer a wide range within the geoscience area and several of the department's programs have received the highest rating in evaluations by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education (Högskoleverket) and the Swedish Higher Education Authority (Universitetskanslersämbetet).
The Department is one of the most complete such academic departments in Europe. Our research focuses on subjects that range from the Earth’s core to the atmosphere, on scales from sub-microscopic structures in minerals to the formation of mountains and oceans. CO2 storage research
Uppsala University has been involved in important EC projects on CO2 geological storage (MUSTANG, Panacea, TRUST, CO2Quest, CO2SINK, CO2CARE), and the injection tests in Israel at the Heletz site in 2016 and 2017. Moreover, the Uppsala University is often appointed as an expert in CCS, in international advisory boards, in the editorial board of International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, in the CCS working group of the European Academies of Science. Research has been carried out on the Geological Storage of CO2 in the Baltic Sea region
A text book was released by Springer in 2017: GEOLOGICAL STORAGE OF CO2 IN DEEP SALINE FORMATIONS
Niemi, A., Bear, J. and Bensabat, J. (Editors)