Joint Research

The strategic research aims of the CO2GeoNet Association are to produce and disseminate integrated scientific research results, contribute to the identification of knowledge gaps and the formulation of new research targets, and to foster the interaction and exchange of information and views between CO2 storage researchers and CCS stakeholders.

CO2GeoNet intends to be strongly involved in the CO2 storage sub-programme of EERA (European Energy Research Area): the coordinator of this sub-programme is Jonathan Pearce from BGS and 13 CO2GeoNet members are active participants in this sub-programme, taking part in the biannual steering committee meetings, workshops and the Programmes and Priorities task force, specifically set up to identify research priorities.

Moreover, several CO2GeoNet members are actively involved in ECCSEL (European Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure). Through this representation, CO2GeoNet keeps its members up to date with developments in coordination and future capability needs of research facilities across Europe.


Scientific Advice

Scientific advice represents a major channel for CO2GeoNet to position itself as a reference body for European science on CO2 Geological Storage. The Association strategy includes the creation of an organized advice system to enable the Network’s contribution to advice processes both based on external and own funds.

CO2GeoNet will respond to any request that fall within the CO2GeoNet remit, such as answering consultations, preparation of position papers on controversial issues, invited participation in specific events.

As has been presented in the past, the collective views of CO2GeoNet will be provided, which implies interaction with members contributing to the task force, to take into account a variety of inputs and perspectives, although always keeping in focus our specific scientific role.

Worthy to be mentioned are the association active contacts with: ISO international technical committee on CO2; UNFCCC, as accredited observer organisation in the category “Research NGO” (RINGO); Global CCS Institute ; CSLF, because recognized as CSLF project since 2005; IEA GHG, thanks to  signed MoU in 2008; EU CCS Demo project Network, as member of the Advisory Forum since 2011; the EC DirectoratesCTCN, as member.


Capacity Building

The CO2GeoNet strategy includes training and capacity building to foster the development of upcoming generations of scientists that will be needed for the widespread deployment of the technology. 

As a unique research organisation in Europe, the Association is proactive in offering training and capacity building to share results and new knowledge that emerges as the result of any CO2 storage research throughout Europe, to ensure all CO2GeoNet members can develop top level research, the best research environment and staff of the highest standard.

CO2GeoNet can ensure an interaction between the overall CO2GeoNet academia and the local academia (institute), presenting cutting edge science, cross-disciplinary environment and create international networking opportunities for its members.

The goal is to work toward a coordinated approach to assess the current and future situation concerning requirements for skills relating to CO2 storage in Europe and to engage in actions aimed at building up and attracting expertise.



The CO2GeoNet strategy includes information and communication as a way to promote the Association and specifically identifies the provision and dissemination of integrated scientific research results and the fostering of the exchange of information and views between CO2 storage researchers and CCS stakeholders.

Information and communication from an independent body is of strong interest for Members, companies, the public and regulators, and is considered necessary to promote a better understanding of CO2 geological storage in the public.

As examples of these activities in 2015, the following can be mentioned:

  • the 10th Open Forum “CO2 Storage: the cornerstone of our low carbon future” and following workshops organized in close collaboration with the European Commission, the United States Department of Energy (DoE) and the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA);
  • the International Scientific Conference “Our Common Future under Climate Change”, where CO2GeoNet was co-convenor of a parallel session “Negative emissions for climate change stabilization & the role of CO2 geological storage” and co-organizer of three side events – one in UK (London) and two in Italy (Rome,Caprarola);
  • participation at the environmental event of the year 2015, the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Paris, during which CO2GeoNet contributed to four side events and was lead organiser for a booth in the public Climate Generations Area (CGA) and co-organiser for a booth in the restricted negotiation ‘Blue zone’.

The dissemination activities are also performed through the CO2GeoNet website, a quarterly newsletter, the brochure “What does CO2 geological storage really mean ?”, participation to conferences, meetings and European Parliamentary hearings, reports and publications, press releases and interaction with media. 





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EU-funded projects, performed as CO2GeoNet or with the key participation of our member
CGS Europe

Pan-European coordination action on CO2 Geological Storage

CGS Europe is a project funded within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Community for research, technological development and demonstration activities.

CGS Europe pools together the expertise of the key research institutes in the area of CO2 geological storage in European Member States and Associated Countries. It sets up coordination and integration mechanisms between the CO2GeoNet Association - the European Network of Excellence on the Geological Storage of CO2 - and 23 other participants, thus covering most of Europe with 24 EU Member States and 4 Associated Countries.

CGS Europe provides an independent platform and reference source where national, European and international experts, institutes and regulators are able to access the most up-to-date results of CO2 storage-related studies, share experiences and good practices, discuss the implementation of regulations, identify research needs to face upcoming challenges, and build new projects.


CO2 site closure assessment research

CO2CARE aims to support the large scale demonstration of CCS technology by addressing the research requirements of CO2 storage site abandonment.

It delivers technologies and procedures for abandonment and post-closure safety, satisfying the regulatory requirements for transfer of responsibility.

The project focus on three key areas:

  • well abandonment and long-term integrity;
  • reservoir management and prediction from closure to the long-term;
  • risk management methodologies for long-term safety.

Objectives are achieved via integrated laboratory research, field experiments and state-of-the-art numerical modelling, supported by literature review and data from a rich portfolio of real storage sites, covering a wide range of geological and geographical settings.

CO2CARE aim is to develop plugging techniques to ensure long-term well integrity; study the factors critical to long-term site safety; develop monitoring methods for leakage detection; investigate and develop remediation technologies.

Predictive modelling approaches are assessed for their ability to help define acceptance criteria. Risk management procedures and tools to assess post-closure system performance are developed. Integrating these, the technical criteria necessary to assess whether a site meets the high level requirements for transfer of responsibility defined by the EU Directive is established. The technologies developed are implemented at the Ketzin site and dry-run applications for site abandonment are developed for hypothetical closure scenarios at Sleipner and K12-B.

Participation of partners from the US, Canada, Japan and Australia and data obtained from current and closed sites add to the field monitoring database and place the results of CO2CARE in a world-wide perspective. Research findings are presented as best-practice guidelines. Dissemination strategy consists in delivering results to a wide range of international stakeholders and the general public.


The European Network of Excellenceon the Geological Storage of CO2


  • is the European scientific authority dealing with all aspects of geological storage of CO2, durably engaged in enabling the safe and efficient deployment of the CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) technology in order to mitigate climate change and ocean acidification
  • joins together 26 partners from 19 European countries, ranging from national geological surveys and research institutes, through to universities and associated “spin out” research companies, all with a high international profile and critical mass in CO2 geological storage research
  • pools more than 300 experts, researchers and postgraduate students, forming an integrated interdisciplinary team of geoscientists and marine, aquatic and terrestrial bioscientists, meaning that the full range of research issues on the impact and security of CO2 geological storage can be addressed
  • was originally launched under the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme as a Network of Excellence (2004-2009) to promote research integration within the scientific community to help enable the implementation of CO2 geological storage
  • launched a non-profit scientific Association in 2008 registered under French Law so as to continue the networking accomplished under the European Commission's contract
  • offers a variety of services in four main domains of activity:

joint research,

training and capacity building,

scientific advice,

information and communication


CO2 Storage Potential in Europe

CO2StoP is the acronym for the “CO2 Storage Potential in Europe.” project. The CO2StoP project, which started in January 2012 and ended in December 2013, was funded by the European Commission (Project N°: ENER/C1/154-2011-SI2.611598). The project covered data from 27 countries1.

The results of the study are provided as a database of CO2 storage locations throughout Europe, a Data Analysis/Interrogation Tool and GIS, and a tool to compute storage capacities and injection rates (StoreFit). The database is now housed by the Joint Research Centre - European Commission, Petten, the Netherlands ( ).

The calculations made in CO2StoP from the current project database of CO2 storage locations throughout Europe paint a broad picture, but also identify the gaps in our knowledge. These gaps must be filled by further data entry, and, potentially, new geological studies, seismic surveys and drilling to make more precise data available.

It is critically important to understand the assumptions that lie at the basis of the storage capacity estimates entered in the database. These are especially relevant for saline formations, the capacities of which were derived without taking into account regulatory or economic limitations.

The CO2StoP methodology has made significant progress towards establishing probabilistic estimates of the CO2 storage resource in Europe in a way that will allow comparisons with other regions of the world to be made, and which will also be useful to policy makers. However, the partial data entry into the project database does make clear that the current project marks the beginning of the process of resource estimation, and certainly not the end.


The European Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure

The European Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Laboratory Infrastructure (ECCSEL) was established in June 2017 as a permanent pan-European distributed research infrastructure, ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). Within the initial 5 European founding Member countries (France, Italy, the Netherlands, UK and Norway (Operations Centre)), 21 service providers offer open access to more than 79 world class CCS research facilities across Europe, coordinated by ECCSEL and accessible through the ECCSEL website.

ECCSEL is expected to grow both in terms of new Member Countries, new service providers as well as heavy investments in upgraded and new facilities. The headquarter, the ECCSEL Operations Centre is located in Trondheim, Norway.

ECCSEL European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC), was established by the European Commision implementing decision of 9. June 2017 (EU) 2017/996.

ECCSEL ERIC is registered in the Norwegian Company Registry with the organisation number 919298243.


Sub-seabed CO2 Storage: Impact on Marine Ecosystems

Sub-seabed CO2 Storage

With this selection of study sites, each at a different operative stage, ECO2 will cover the major geological settings to be used for the storage of CO2 including depleted oil and gas reservoirs (B3 field site, 80 m water depth), saline aquifers located at the continental shelf (Sleipner, 90 m water depth), and the upper continental slope (Snøhvit, 330 m water depth, see section B1.3 for more detailed information on study areas). In response to the call, we have developed five key objectives for ECO2.


  1. To investigate the likelihood of leakage from sub-seabed storage sites
  2. To study the potential effects of leakage on benthic organisms and marine ecosystems
  3. To assess the risks of sub-seabed carbon dioxide storage (based on objectives 1 and 2)
  4. To develop a comprehensive monitoring strategy using cutting-edge monitoring techniques
  5. To define guidelines for the best environmental practices in implementation and management of sub-seabed storage sites (based on objectives 1 to 4)


Enhanced oil recovery with storage

The objective of ECO-BASE (sponsored by ACT ERA Net Co-fund) is to develop detailed and integrated roadmaps for CCUS(carbon capture, utilisation and storage) based on EORStore concept, where EOR (enhanced oil recovery) is co-optimised with permanent storage.

The project is focusing around three South-East European countries (Romania, Turkey and Greece) with support from Norway and the Netherlands. The roadmaps will be based on available data on sources and sinks and supported by state of the art optimization engineering and economic/tax modelling. The project will analyse several emitter to end-user value chains and prospective revenue streams in Southern-East Europe by providing roadmaps as preparation for pilot applications, thereby lifting the storage and utilization components of the CCUS value chain in SEE to TRL 4-5. 

The resulting roadmaps will include the way forward on technical, legal, economic and public levels for CCUS in general and to EORStore specifically. The cases will also serve as an example for Europe-wide application of CCUS.


ENabling Onshore CO2 Storage in Europe

The ENOS (ENabling ONshore CO2 storage in Europe) project, coordinated by BRGM (France), was launched at the end of 2016 and will last for four years. It unites 29 organisations across 17 countries, and is financed by the European Union’s H2020 programme with a budget of 12.5 M€ as well as partners’ own funds. It is an initiative of CO2GeoNet, the European Network of Excellence on the geological storage of CO2 ( Eight of its members are involved in this project, namely: BRGM, BGR, CGS, CIUDEN, IRIS, OGS, TNO and UNIROMA La Sapienza.

ENOS strives to enhance the development of CO2 storage onshore, close to CO2 emission points. Several field pilots in various geological settings will be studied in detail and best practices that stakeholders can rely on will be produced. In this way, ENOS will help demonstrate that CO2 storage is safe and environmentally sound and increase the confidence of stakeholders and the public in CCS as a viable mitigation option.


Assessing European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide

The main objective of GeoCapacity is to Assess the European Capacity for Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide.

The project has included full assessments of a number hitherto not covered countries, and updates of previously covered territory. Also a priority is the further development of innovative methods for capacity assessment, economic modelling and site selection criteria. Finally, an important mission is to initiate scientific collaboration with China and possibly other CSLF members. The GeoCapacity project has comprised all or parts of the sedimentary basins suitable for geological storage of CO2 and located within the EU and the Central and Eastern European new member states and candidate countries. In areas, which were part of the GESTCO project completed in 2003, the work has included only supplementary updates.

The project is co-funded by the EU within FP6 - the 6th Framework Programme of the European Community for Research, Technological Development and demonstration activities, contributing to the creation of the European Research Area and to innovation (2002 to 2006).


HYdrogen STORage In European Subsurface

Renewable hydrogen, when combined with large-scale underground storage in aquifers, depleted fields or salt caverns, makes it possible to balance out the variability of renewable energy production. While storing pure hydrogen in salt caverns has been practiced since the 70s in Europe, pure hydrogen storage has not been carried out yet anywhere in depleted fields or aquifers.
Hystories will deliver technical developments applicable to a vast range of future aquifer or depleted field hydrogen storage sites, will conduct techno-economic feasibility studies, and provide insights into underground hydrogen storage for decision-makers in government and industry.

The Hystories (HYdrogen STORage In European Subsurface) project, coordinated by GEOSTOCK SAS (France), started at the beginning of 2021 and will last for two years. It unites 7 partners and 17 third parties across 17 European countries and is financed by the European Union’s H2020 program with a budget of 2.5 M€.

The European Network of Excellence on the geological storage of CO2 (CO2GeoNet) is coordinating workpackage 1; geological assessment. This workpackage will produce a database of geological storage opportunities both on and offshore by building on previous subsurface assessments with the addition of new data including parameters with specific relevance to geological storage of hydrogen. Thanks to the involvement of 17 of its Members, CO2GeoNet will be able to collate data for at least 22 European countries.


Research into impacts & safety in CO2 storage

RISCS is a European project which aims to improve our understanding of the possible environmental impacts of geological storage of CO2. There are 24 organisations participating in RISCS including research institutions, industry environmental associations and the International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas R & D Programme. The project is designed to study a wide range of potential impacts, thus providing tools for developing appropriate legislation and helping to ensure the safe management of CO2 storage sites.

RISCS is a 4- year, EU and industry sponsored project, with focus on the potential environmental impacts that might be associated with CO2 leakage from a storage site, even if such leakage is very unlikely.

The project provides the essential research, through field work and the development and validation of appropriate models, to underpin frameworks for the safe management of CO2 storage sites. Research within the project is focused on understanding the potential likelihoods and consequences of impacts scenarios on key receptors such as human populations, ecosystems, and groundwater.

A representative set of reference scenarios, encompassing the main types of impacts to living organisms that could be present, are investigated. This covers a range of CO2 storage options , both onshore and offshore, in a variety of geographical settings.

RISCS aim is to communicate the research and the outcomes in an accessible way to stakeholders and the public. A key output of the project (and other related research) is a ‘Guide for Impact Appraisal’, developed in consultation with stakeholders.


Characterisation of European CO2 storage sites

The three-year European SiteChar project (FP7), dedicated to set the criteria for characterisation of sites for geological storage of CO2, was launched in January 2011.

SiteChar has examined the whole site characterisation process integrating site characterisation, risk assessment and development of monitoring plans. The workflow has been tested at a range of onshore and offshore, saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs, representative of various geological contexts and located across Europe. Detailed evaluation of site-specific techno-economic factors and injection strategies have been performed. Social site characterisation and public engagement activities have also been conducted. A key innovation is the development of dry-run licence applications.

By advancing a portfolio of sites to a (near-) completed feasibility stage, developing a methodology for the preparation of license applications, incorporating all the technical and economic data, as well as societal aspects, SiteChar has provided a valuable tool for the roll- out of geological storage on an industrial scale in Europe.

Coordinated by IFP Energies nouvelles, SiteChar gathers another sixteen partners from research, industry, and consultancy sector, from ten EU countries: AGH, BGS, ECN, ENEL, GEUS, GFZ, IMPERIAL, OGS, PGNiG, SINTEF-PR, Statoil, TNO, UfU, UniRoma1-CERI, Vattenfall and the Scottish Government. SiteChar is has been also supported by Veolia Environnement.

Strategy CCUS

A viable solution for a sustainable future

STRATEGY CCUS is an ambitious three-year project funded by the European Union to support the development of low-carbon energy and industry in Southern and Eastern Europe. Work began in May 2019, and the project will run until April 2022.

Scientists from ten European countries are working together to speed the development of carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) technology, which will deliver significant cuts in emissions from industrial and power sectors.

The project focuses on eight regions identified as promising for CCUS development and aims to encourage and support initiatives within each region by producing local development plans and business models tailored to industry’s needs.


Understanding the Log-Term fate of geologically stored CO2

ULTimateCO2, a four-year collaborative project financed by the 7th Framework Programme and coordinated by BRGM, aims to shed more light on the long-term processes associated with the geological storage of CO2.

ULTimateCO2 unites 12 partners (research institutes, universities, industrialists) and a varied panel of experts (NGOs, national authority representatives, IEAGHG, ….).

Based on a multidisciplinary approach, and bringing together laboratory experiments, numerical modelling and natural analogue field studies, ULTimateCO2 will increase our understanding of the long-term effects of CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) in terms of hydrodynamics, geochemistry, mechanics of the storage formations and their vicinity.

The project considers the three crucial elements of a storage site: 

Reservoir: All processes of multiphase flow and associated geochemical reactivity are studied through laboratory experiments and digital modelling in order to assess CO2 trapping mechanisms (structural, dissolution, residual, mineral), based on both hypothetical and real data.

Caprock: A shaly caprock, potentially faulted or fractured, is studied in detail based on i) previous data on gas reservoirs in the North Sea that have shown leakage, ii) laboratory tests on shale cores altered by geochemical acidification, and iii) numerical modelling coupling geochemical alteration of shale and behaviour mechanics.

Wellbore: The wellbore vicinity is a crucial zone for possible leakage compromising the long term efficiency and safety of a storage site. The project is undertaking a true scale experiment in the underground rock laboratory of Mont Terri in Switzerland to reproduce conditions of a well bottom in contact with brine acidified by dissolved CO2 during one year, with fluid sampling and continuous monitoring of permeability of the shale-cement-casing interface. Overcoring and extraction of the entire system will then enable detailed identification of any potential leakage paths and geochemical interactions of the interfaces.